Romans - Chapter 1

Discover the hidden treasures within the book of Romans as you follow Pastor Jason's personal notes and observations, taking you on a journey through each verse.


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Paul penned a letter to the grandest metropolis of his time, a city that would retain its title as the world's largest for nearly two millennia. With its population of 1.2 million, Rome stood as the hub of an empire encompassing over 60 million souls. Amidst this bustling city, where humanity's finest and darkest aspects converged, Paul felt an unwavering zeal to proclaim the gospel. He recognized it as God's extraordinary solution, a divine force capable of healing all the afflictions of mankind, available to anyone who embraced it with faith (Romans 1:16).

Paul emphasizes that his gospel goes beyond the Old Testament's call for righteousness. Instead, it offers the ultimate standard of righteousness, which is the righteousness of God, available to all who have faith. This righteousness is not achieved through works but through a continuous journey of faith. The gospel reveals how God enables individuals to become incredibly righteous, just like Him, solely through their belief in Jesus Christ and His redemptive work for humanity.

The consequences of sin are evident as God allows individuals to face the full outcome of their actions without any divine intervention. The suppression of God's truth by various religions has led to widespread sin among those who are unaware of God. Despite this, God has revealed Himself through human conscience and the natural world. However, people have chosen to persist in their errors and suffer the consequences without restraint. God has withdrawn His hand of restraint, allowing them to experience the full extent of their mistakes to convince them that their chosen path is not the right one for their lives.

The redemptive nature of God's wrath is emphasized by Paul when he states that God "gave them over" in Romans 1:24. This sets the stage for Paul's eagerness to preach the gospel, knowing that it holds the power of God for salvation to all who believe (Romans 1:16). This transformative power has been evident from Jerusalem to Illyricum (Romans 15:19) and will continue to impact lives in Rome as well.

Romans 1:1

Paul - Initially called Saul, he gained notoriety as a church persecutor but later became renowned as a minister of the gospel, adopting a new name from God in the process despite his previous attempts to dismantle Christianity. Utilizing his new name signifies the truth of his transformation as a new man in Christ Jesus, where his past has been eliminated, and his new identity as Saul ceased to exist once he experienced rebirth and dedicated himself to serving Jesus Christ. The name Saul is associated with Paul's identity before Christ, while his new identity after Christ is known as Paul, which he willingly adopts and uses for his ministry. In this passage, Paul demonstrates his rejection of the worth he once attributed to his former identity and his acceptance of the person he has become through his faith in Jesus Christ. The fact that Paul chose to go by the name Paul, which is a non-Jewish or "gentile" name, demonstrates his desire to identify with his primary audience and fully embrace his role as an apostle to the Gentiles.

In his quest to win them over, he assimilated into their ranks, adopting their ways. This unwavering commitment to adapt to different people drove him to become all things to all men. Paul's method exemplifies the missionary spirit, akin to Jesus leaving the sanctuary of heaven to dwell among humanity, risking everything to rescue humanity. Undoubtedly, Paul could have chosen the easier path by staying in the familiar and secure city of Jerusalem. However, he recognized the immense sacrifice his Master had made to save humanity. Thus, Paul was determined to go to great lengths and make necessary sacrifices to spread the message of Jesus' sacrifice far and wide. Paul willingly embraced the same selfless act of Jesus, who became human and sacrificed himself for mankind. He mirrored this sacrificial love by offering his life for the same purpose, inspired by the One who had loved and given everything for him.

Bondservant - Picture a bond slave as someone wholly owned by another, but with a twist. Unlike a typical slave, a bondservant might have already cleared their debt to the owner, yet they opt to stay and serve voluntarily. Paul's life took a dramatic turn as he embraced a new path. Gone were the days of life as his own; he now found himself as a man under the guidance of God’s authority and ownership - for he was bought with a great price. From that moment on, his life was dedicated solely to fulfilling the desires of his Master. Every day, he prioritized his Master's work above all else, devoting himself entirely until his last breath. However, Paul was not forced into slavery or coerced against his will. Instead, he willingly embraced his role as a devoted servant out of his deep love for Jesus Christ. Paul joyfully carried out his Master's will from the depths of his heart without obligation or compulsion.

Christ Jesus - In this passage, we come across an interesting distinction in how Paul uses the name of the Savior compared to other writers of the New Testament. While most writers, except for two references in 1 Peter, use the term "Jesus Christ," Paul uses the reverse order, "Christ Jesus." The reason behind this lies in the sequence of events. The other apostles first encountered Jesus and then realized he was the Christ. However, Paul's experience was different. He first encountered Christ and then discovered that this was the man Jesus.

Called as an Apostle - An apostle is someone who is "sent out" on a mission - or "sent one." Just as Jesus was sent from heaven to earth to make a sacrifice for us, he is both our Apostle and High Priest. Similarly, those who are "called" are not just called for the sake of having a calling, but they are "called" to be sent out and fulfill the divine purpose with all the authority needed to accomplish it. Jesus expressed that just as the Father sent him, he also sent his followers. The one sent is entrusted with the responsibility of faithfully reflecting the character and purpose of the sender. In one sense, everyone in Christ is an Apostle because we are all sent, but Paul fulfilled a specific assignment through a designated office entrusted by the Lord.

Set apart for the gospel of God - Paul has discovered his true purpose in life, which revolves around spreading the good news. He has intentionally excluded any other pursuits from becoming his main focus. In Greek, the term "set apart" is aphorizo. It can mean to divide, separate, or mark off a boundary. It also implies "horizon," symbolizing something beyond one's vision or comprehension. In this context, the term "gospel" signifies the incredible news that God extends mercy to us instead of judgment, all thanks to Jesus' sacrifice. This truth profoundly shapes Paul's entire perspective on the world. He embodies this positive outlook, always viewing Christ's work through a “good news” lens. He recognizes the inherent worth of every individual, believing that Christ died for each person and that they are deeply loved and valued by God - none outside of this capacity. He does not make judgments “according to the flesh” but instead focuses on the worth that comes solely from being "in Christ." The most important thing to him is Jesus Christ and His sacrifice and crucifixion on the cross.

Romans 1:2

Paul is emphasizing that the concept of salvation through faith and grace is not something new or unique to him. He points out that this idea is actually found throughout the Old Testament scriptures. In his letter, he will provide numerous examples of these passages and specifically highlight the teaching of righteousness through faith alone.

Romans 1:3

The pages of the Old Testament unveil the presence of Jesus Christ. In John 5:39, Jesus himself acknowledges that the scriptures of the Old Testament bear witness to him. One significant aspect is that Jesus fulfills the Messianic anticipation of the Jewish people by being a direct descendant of King David. The phrase "according to the flesh" emphasizes Jesus' humanity, but it also highlights that his person encompasses more than just his human nature. He is not solely human; he is the embodiment of God, Immanuel - God with us, having come in the form of flesh.

Romans 1:4

In contrast to Romans 1:5, which highlights Jesus' humanity, this verse emphasizes the divine aspect of His being. Jesus is both fully human and fully divine, allowing Him to fully understand and experience the human condition. Through His sacrificial death, He offers redemption and new life to all humanity. Furthermore, Jesus perfectly reveals the nature of God, as He is God Himself. In His one Person, Jesus flawlessly unites the divine and human aspects. In this verse, Paul emphasizes that Jesus' resurrection serves as undeniable evidence of His divinity. By rising from the dead, Jesus validates all of His claims about Himself. If He had been deceitful, He would not have been able to overcome death, thus exposing His testimony as false. Moreover, His resurrection serves as undeniable proof that His sacrifice effectively atoned for all sins, resulting in our righteousness (Romans 4:25).

Romans 1:5

by whom, we have received - It is crucial to understand that our actions did not result in anything positive, only anger. Nevertheless, thanks to Jesus, we have obtained something not as a reward, but as a generous present. As C.H. Spurgeon once said, "Remarkable individuals are exceptional receivers." This gift does not come from us, but from God. We have not lived a flawless life, yet through Jesus, we have received and now possess the Perfect Life as a free gift through our faith.

grace and apostleship - The essence of grace lies in the gift of Christ's accomplishments, encompassing His death, burial, resurrection, and ascension to the right hand of the Father. It is solely through this foundation that grace reaches us, and it is received through faith. Grace is not a mere aspiration; it is a present possession. Moreover, it is not only bestowed upon us, but its immeasurable worth ignites our passion and compels us to share it with the world. The motivation derived from grace forms the core of our mission, as we are sent into the world to bring its transformative power to all.

for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name - In Romans 1:5 and once more in Romans 16:26, we find a beautiful reminder of the obedience that stems from faith in God's goodness, rather than fear. This obedience is rooted in the grace of God, which encompasses everything He has done through Christ to bring us back to our true nature as reflections of the incorruptible God. The message of this grace serves as a catalyst for faith, leading to obedience. The gospel is not about achieving, but rather about believing. It's not about constant striving, but recognizing that it is finished. All of this is done for the sake of Jesus' reputation, so that His Name may be glorified as all nations turn to Him. The work of Christ is more than sufficient to save humanity countless times.

Romans 1:6

Congratulations! You have answered the divine call and embraced the opportunity to become a recipient of God's grace through Jesus Christ. You are now a participant in this incredible offer.

Romans 1:7

To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints - Our identity as Christians is that of saints, not just a goal to strive for. From the moment we begin our journey, we are already holy, chosen by Jesus Christ. Whether we consider ourselves the best or the worst, we are all saints, set apart by the grace of Jesus' sacrifice. In this world, there are only two types of people: those who are "saints" and those who are "aint's." Our calling is not to attempt to become saints but to embrace our identity as saints, made holy by the ultimate sacrifice of Jesus.

Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ - God's grace is bestowed upon us through the actions of Jesus in His death, burial, and resurrection. Through this means alone, we receive God's grace. The term "peace" in this context refers to restoring our relationship with God, bringing us back into unity with Him - one. This is grace's ultimate effect and purpose - to reunite us with God through Jesus Christ. Through this restored union, God provides everything we lack, again making us whole. Grace acts as the binding force that connects us to God.

Romans 1:8

The reason for his gratitude is signified by the word "through." Paul's thanksgiving stems from the incredible act of salvation accomplished by the One, which has caused him to overflow with gratitude. When we pray, we are to direct our prayers to God in the name of Jesus. It is not that we pray "through Jesus," but instead, we pray in the name of Jesus, embracing His identity and the rights freely given to us through His grace. When we approach God, we do so in the identity of Jesus Christ, which is what it means to pray in Jesus' name. This new identity, received as a gift through faith, is what we invoke in prayer and when we minister healing and deliverance, among other things. Paul expresses his gratitude to God for the incredible work of Jesus in saving people and now in spreading the good news through believers. The power of Christianity knows no boundaries, as it transcends geography, race, and nationality. It will continue to expand and reach every corner of the world through preaching.

Romans 1:9

For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit - Christianity is not a superficial service, like the Law of Moses, but rather a transformation that occurs deep within the heart. It is a religion that operates on a spiritual level, revolutionizing our innermost being and radiating outward from there. This profound change goes beyond surface-level adjustments and transforms our spirit (Matthew 23:25-26).

in the gospel of his Son, - The incredible news is amazing. It centers on the achievements of God rather than our works. It highlights the teachings and actions of Jesus rather than our flaws. It intends not to emphasize our self-awareness and errors, as the Law has already done. Instead, the gospel directs people's focus toward Jesus and His remarkable accomplishments.

that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers; - Paul's prayers are the source of this letter, revealing his deep concern for those for whom Jesus died. It reflects God's desire to minister to all people. Paul's prayers echo God's heart and his longing to share the good news with the world.

Romans 1:10

Paul had harbored a long-standing desire to visit the Roman church, which was not a sudden or recent longing. He had yearned for this visit for many years, as mentioned in Romans 15:22. Despite his frequent and persistent intentions to see them, the devil had hindered his plans, as stated in Romans 1:13. However, Paul's desire to visit the Roman church aligned with God's will for him to spread the gospel throughout the world.

Romans 1:11

Despite encountering temporary challenges from Satan, the planned trip to Rome was unquestionably God's will and personally held immense importance for Paul. Paul had eagerly anticipated this visit, as its purpose was to bestow "some spiritual gift" to "establish" the faith of those in Rome. This longing to establish righteousness through faith is stated in Isaiah 54:14 - "In righteousness, you will be established." It is evident in this verse and throughout the entire book of Romans. Despite being physically absent due to the distance between them, Paul aims to initiate the process of imparting this gift through his letter.

Romans 1:12

It is truly inspiring and uplifting to witness someone's unwavering faith in Jesus, even in the face of challenges and hardships. His confidence is a catalyst, motivating us to strengthen our faith. This mutual support and encouragement form the bedrock of genuine fellowship.

Romans 1:13

Paul revisits his previous comments in verse 11 about being hindered. He desires to see the "fruit" of his labor, which is the salvation of souls and the transformation of those who have already experienced his ministry in the eastern regions of the Roman Empire. Now, he hopes to witness the same impact in Rome.

Romans 1:14

Paul considered it his duty and obligation to spread the gospel to everyone. He felt compelled to share the good news with people from all walks of life, regardless of their wisdom, foolishness, ethnicity, or cultural background. Paul firmly believed that everyone deserved the opportunity to hear the gospel, and he saw it as his responsibility to fulfill this debt by ensuring that no one was left without the chance to receive the message.

Romans 1:15

Paul expresses his eagerness to preach in Rome due to his sense of duty and commitment. He firmly believes that the gospel will positively impact Rome, just as it has in other parts of the empire. This demonstrates the power of the gospel, as it can bring about transformation and change in any city, regardless of its reputation or the challenges it may present. It is a testament to the inclusive nature of the gospel, as it reaches out to all people, even those who are broken and sinful.

Romans 1:16

The power of God is truly remarkable. This gospel makes God's power accessible to accomplish what mankind cannot achieve. It liberates individuals entirely from the consequences, contamination, and control of sin. This message is universal, embracing both Jews and Greeks alike. It is not exclusive to a select few but is available to "everyone who believes." It is a gift that belongs to all willing to embrace it.

Romans 1:17

For in it the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: - Paul's unwavering confidence in the gospel stems from one crucial factor: its inherent power, which transcends human capability. The gospel illuminates how God, through faith in Jesus Christ, transforms sinful individuals into beings as pure and holy as Himself. The revelation goes beyond simply affirming God's righteousness, as the Law of Moses had already established. It unveils how God's perfect standard of righteousness is accessible to everyone as a gift through faith. This righteousness originates from God and possesses the same divine quality. It is not a righteousness that relies on faith initially and then depends on good deeds for its continuation; instead, it begins and concludes with faith alone. It is explicitly declared that we are transformed into "the righteousness of God" through Jesus Christ.

as it is written, The just shall live by faith - This passage is a quote from one of the "prophets" mentioned by Paul in his letter (1:2). It comes from Habakkuk 2:4, and in the Greek text, it reads as follows: "The one who is righteous by faith shall live." The Law of Moses highlights the sinfulness of mankind, while the gospel reveals the righteousness that man has attained. It's not just a matter of being treated as innocent when we're guilty; it's the fact that we truly are innocent. The undeniable proof of our innocence has been abundantly provided through the work of Jesus Christ in His death, burial, and resurrection. Therefore, our legal and genuine innocence through Him is unquestionable.

Romans 1:18

In this chapter, the phrase "wrath of God is revealed from heaven" is exemplified in verses 1:24, 26, and 28 through the recurring declaration of "God gave them over." This judgment will not be unveiled in the future; instead, it is already being revealed in the present. It is not portrayed as an active form of judgment but rather as a consequence of allowing individuals to fully experience the results of their error. Paul's argument persists in this verse, extending into the following two chapters. He aims to prove that righteousness can only be achieved through Jesus Christ, as all other methods and attempts by mankind have proven futile. Whether Jews or Gentiles, every measure confirms their failure and their status as sinners in desperate need of God's righteousness, which is attained through faith in Jesus Christ. Paul emphasizes that men do not actively seek the truth about God's nature but choose to suppress it. Rather than conforming to God's holiness, they assert that God is just as sinful as they are, drawing comparisons to the Greek and Roman gods known for their immoral behavior. Instead of recognizing God's righteousness through creation and their conscience, they alter their gods to resemble themselves. Rather than striving to reflect the perfect image of God in their own lives, they distort the image of God to align with their flaws. Consequently, they render any transformation to resemble God unnecessary and even undesirable. Suppressing the truth of God is not the answer to ungodliness and unrighteousness. It's like playing a mind game, trying to find a way to continue sinning without guilt. The truth is that they have reached this point by believing a lie, and the only way to be set free is by embracing the truth. They choose to keep suppressing the very truth that can bring them freedom. Like Adam and Eve, they blame the wrong person for their problems.

Romans 1:19

Man's ability to differentiate between a negative representation of humanity and a positive one demonstrates his understanding of the necessary standards to make such judgments. In his renowned book Mere Christianity, C. S. Lewis eloquently explains that our knowledge of what constitutes a poor father stems from our innate understanding of what a perfect father embodies. This understanding remains within us, even if we have only encountered negative father figures. Without this internalized concept of a good father, we would struggle to discern between good and evil, solely relying on our familiarity with negative examples. Deep within, every individual possesses an intrinsic comprehension of moral right and wrong. We wouldn't label something as a poor example if we didn't accurately perceive what an exemplary one should be like. Hence, the qualities of God are unmistakably "evident within them," accessible through both reason and conscience.

Romans 1:20

God has chosen creation as the primary means to reveal His "invisible attributes." Through nature, we gain insight into the character of God, leaving us without an excuse for claiming ignorance. The divine moral code is evident in what has been created, allowing us to comprehend it. The magnificence and purity of nature's beauty captivate and enthrall humanity. In the presence of such wonders, mankind discovers a profound sense of peace. These reflections embody the divine majesty, purity, and extraordinary beauty bestowed upon mankind through their faith in Jesus Christ. In stark contrast, the distorted gods worshipped by the Greeks and Romans directly contradicted the true God of creation, whom they had come to know through their profound admiration for the splendor, purity, and grandeur of the natural world.

Romans 1:21

Speculation is a cognitive journey that disregards all the existing facts to generate notions lacking any factual foundation. The pagans' remedy for their sense of guilt was to discard the concept of a flawless God as witnessed in the act of creation. By introducing this novel idea, they sought to justify their shortcomings by attributing worse conduct to gods than what they exhibited. In doing so, they could evaluate and justify their actions. The gods worshiped by the pagans were merely a reflection of the foolishness inherent in human thoughts rather than a genuine revelation of God as evident in the world's creation.

Romans 1:22

The term "fools" is employed here to convey a moral connotation. Their deeds served as a testament to their lack of comprehension. Although they claimed to possess wisdom, their actions revealed that their thoughts were not wise but rather morally bankrupt. The ignorance residing within them stems from their hardened hearts.

Romans 1:23

Their choice to distort their beliefs about God to justify their immoral actions worsened over time. As their perception of their deities deteriorated, sinking even lower than that of humans and reptiles, their gods lost their grandeur and purity. This is why God opposes idolatry, as humans inevitably become reflections of what they worship. Psalm 115:8 and Psalm 135:18 both proclaim: "Those who fashion idols become like them." They choose to live in a primitive manner, driven solely by their instincts, abandoning the gift of reason (2 Peter 2:12 and Jude 1:10). In doing so, they degrade themselves by conforming to the flawed standards set by their self-made gods, instead of aspiring to the greatness of the divine presence evident in the natural world. The evidence of God's existence is clearly displayed in His creation. Yet, people often disregard the uncreated God and instead choose to worship gods that are mere products of human imagination and craftsmanship. Mark Twain, the renowned humorist, once humorously remarked that God created man in His image, and in return, man created gods in his image. However, this act of creation was far from gentlemanly and certainly not a favor to God or man. As the great preacher C.H. Spurgeon wisely stated, fallen humanity tends to love the gods they have fashioned but fails to love the true God who created them. It is truly disheartening when others perceive us as someone we are not. There is no greater insult than being labeled as someone other than who we truly are. This false perception damages our trustworthiness and undermines our faith in God. It is a sin God cannot tolerate, as it hinders our ability to establish a genuine connection with Him.

Romans 1:24

The pagan system was far from innocent and harmless. It was insidious, causing great harm and suffering to its followers. Instead of uplifting them and promoting virtuous behavior, it reduced them to a state of mindless animals destined to be captured and destroyed. The worship of a noble and majestic deity is intended to elevate humanity, while the worship of a shallow and inferior concept of God can only degrade them. The power of truth is undeniable, as it uplifts and enriches our lives. On the other hand, lies have a detrimental effect, diminishing our experiences and delivering nothing but disappointment. When we come across the phrase "God gave them over," it signifies that God will not intervene to mitigate the consequences of corruption. To do so would equate lies with truth, which goes against God's nature. It would be a betrayal of His truthfulness. As a result of dishonoring God and distorting their perception of Him, they also defiled their bodies through sin. God respected their freedom of choice and allowed them to face the dire consequences of their actions.

Romans 1:25

Embracing a falsehood might provide temporary solace, yet it cannot shield you from the repercussions that come with it. By willingly relinquishing their profound understanding of God, they inadvertently settled for a mundane existence. Consequently, their perception of the Creator diminished to that of a mere creature, and they, too, faced the consequences of their misguided beliefs.

Romans 1:26

Despite being considered the "gentler" sex, women were not exempt from the detrimental effects of their misunderstanding of God's true nature. Paul believed that sinful actions arise from believing falsehoods about God, and these consequences do not discriminate based on gender. The seemingly innocent and harmless worship practices of the pagan world are extremely dangerous. The consequences of worshipping a diminished form of God profoundly impacted humanity, extending beyond the realm of judgment after death. It inflicted deep and agonizing pain upon them in their present lives. The disgraceful outcome of misguided worship serves as a powerful testament, surpassing any human argument in its condemnation.

Romans 1:27

When people lose sight of the true knowledge of God, chaos, and impurity are bound to follow. Those who disregard His majesty and purity will inevitably be consumed by disorder and defilement. Any form of intimate relationship between men is seen as a form of idolatry, where the focus shifts from the Creator to the creation.

Romans 1:28

Discovering the true knowledge of God would have undoubtedly elevated their moral consciousness, enabling them to perceive themselves in a more profound and virtuous light. This newfound understanding would have naturally inspired them to engage in righteous deeds. Conversely, a mind that lacks a proper comprehension of God's nature is unrestrained in its ability to conceive wicked and immoral actions. Those who perceive God as wrathful and severe will inevitably find it effortless to exhibit cruelty and withhold empathy and kindness from their fellow beings. In this passage, the phrase "God gave them over" is repeated here and in verses 1:24 and 1:26. This repetition signifies God's decision to withdraw His restraining influence, allowing individuals to experience the full consequences of their actions. Through this process, they realize the error in their thinking about God. These verses illustrate the "wrath of God" revealed from heaven, as mentioned in verse 1:18.

Romans 1:29

It would be erroneous to believe that the sin of homosexuality mentioned earlier is the sole sin that tarnishes humanity. In reality, every sin is an act of idolatry, a pursuit of satisfaction in worldly desires rather than in our Creator. Each sin is contaminating, condemnable, and requires the sacrifice of Jesus Christ to liberate us from its grip. The amount of grace needed to save a hardened sinner is no different than that required to save a child. Both of them require the sacrifice of Christ to be redeemed, and the price remains unchanged. There is no distinction in payment between the one considered better and the one considered worse. The severity of sins does not determine the amount of Christ's sacrifice needed; the same payment is required for both the gravest and the least offensive transgressions.

Romans 1:30

It's astonishing how they persistently refuse to contemplate God with clarity; instead, they have transformed into individuals who despise the genuine essence of God. They mistakenly believe He is responsible for their suffering and misfortunes, oblivious to the fact that their own misguided actions have led them down this path of trouble. They unjustly hold God accountable for their hardships, arrogantly assuming they are the first to experience such tribulations. They not only reject God's sovereignty but also dismiss any sensible advice from their parents to steer clear of indulgence.

Romans 1:31

False religion, by its very essence, is characterized by its harshness, its punitive nature, and its demanding expectations. It lacks the gentle understanding, kindness, and mercy essential to any accurate belief system. This is not exclusive to pagan faiths alone; it can also infiltrate Christianity when we fail to keep Jesus and His profound sacrifice at the forefront of our thoughts. When a Christian faith neglects to embrace God's forgiving and redeeming nature, it becomes devoid of love and mercy.

Romans 1:32

Sin is a deceptive force that goes beyond simply committing wrong actions. It seeks validation from others, striving to gain approval for its wickedness. Those who engage in sin not only distort their own perception of God to justify their actions, but they also try to manipulate others into joining them, hoping to escape judgment. However, even if the entire world were to endorse their sinful behavior, it would not make it right, nor would it sway God's stance. God's laws are not determined by popular opinion; they stand firm in defining what is sinful. God intends not to ruin our enjoyment or prevent us from having fun. His definition of sin is rooted in His immense love for us, aiming to shield us from the inevitable suffering and difficulties such actions will bring us. This is the state of the pagan world, as described in this passage. In the upcoming chapter, Paul will address the condition of the Jewish people, who, despite having a deeper understanding of God through His word, are no different from the pagans in terms of their behavior and actions. Both groups, whether influenced by reason, conscience, or the wonders of creation, have fallen short.


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